1.1      2.4      Major Development Constraints

 

According to the district development plans, the major constraints hampering the rapid development in Arumeru district are: -

 

¡×                     Inadequate services such as safe and clean water for domestic use and poor road infrastructure such as network, especially the region bordering the Arusha National Park.

¡×                     Low income of the people

¡×                     Unemployment especially among the youth

¡×                     Insecurity

¡×                     Retrogressive culture of the people

¡×                     Low investment in education

 

1.2      2.5      The External Environment of UoA

 

2.5.1     Introduction

 

Environmental Analysis (Scanning) involves in-depth examination of the external environment covering among other things political, economic social and technological factors. These factors will be addressed in that order in the paragraphs/sections that follow: -

 

¡×                      Political factors

¡×                      Economic factors

¡×                      Social and legal factors

¡×                      Technological factors

 

The external environmental analysis process is shown in Annex.

2.5.2     Political Factors

 

¡×                      The National Higher Education Policy of 1998

¡×                      The Government has put in place a Higher and Technical Education policy whose objectives arise from the micro-policies of the country, which are

o                Attaining self-sufficiency in higher education manpower

o                Increasing investment in human resource development sector, and

o                Improving efficiency of public service expenditure by providing available scarce resource to priority sectors.

 

Through the Medium Term Policy Framework 1999-2004, the Government has committed itself to:

 

¡×                      Encourage broader involvement of the private sector and communities in the development of higher and technical education

¡×                      Double enrolment level in higher education institutions

¡×                      Increase the resource flow to the sub-sector

¡×                      Increase the efficiency of the sub-sector

¡×                      Promote research and consultancy, and

¡×                      Improve quality to higher and technical education

      

 

 Government Membership to International Bodies

 

Tanzania is a member of several international bodies dealing with education issues. These include: -

 

¡×                      The Inter University Council for East Africa (ACU)

¡×                      Association of African Universities (AAU)

¡×                      The Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU)

¡×                      The International Bureau of Education (IBE)

¡×                      The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

¡×                      Donors to Africa Education

 

Trough these associations and membership the proposed University Arusha will automatically get access and participate in meetings arising from these associations, exchange experiences and publications with useful information on education issues.

 

 

The Donor Environment

 

Over the years, development and other learning inputs in higher and technical education has largely been financed by external donors. They have also supported technical expertise and staff development programmes. However, in recent years many of external donors, under what seem to be donor ¡®fatigue¡¯ are sending conflicting signals with respect to extending more support. Even where donor support is regularly available, there has increasingly been some difficulty in securing ¡®matching funds¡¯ from local sources. This is a precarious situation that puts our higher education system into a dilemma. The government is at the moment looking into other viable sustainable means of financing higher and technical education. Donor and other agencies are welcome to support this important endeavour, so that the sub-sector remains vibrant and on sustainable footing. However, the proposed University of Arusha may find it difficult to get donor support given this recent experience.

 

 

Cost Sharing

 

Although the cost sharing policy in higher education has been in operation since 1992, it has gained little popularity, essentially because the community is financially highly pressed. Even when contributions are made, they have been very nominal to have an impact on improving, efficiency, quality, and effectiveness of higher and technical institutions. It is understood that the government is re-examining the existing modalities to make cost sharing more meaningful.

 

3.5.3     Economic Factors

 

Table 3 – A shows enrolment in University per 100,000 people in 13 countries in the sub-region as will be seen. Tanzania ranks lowest on the scale.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1:  University Graduates in 13 African Countries

 

Country

Population, Annual Output Of University Graduate

Graduates Per 100,000 people

Population

Annual Output

Tanzania

30 mil

2,000

7

South Africa

35 mil

85,243

244

Kenya

27 mil

11,000

41

Uganda

18.4 mil

3,500

19

Zimbabwe

10.5 mil

1,500

29

Zambia

8.4 mil

2,000

24

Mozambique

15 mil

1,500

10

Botswana

1.5 mil

600

40

Lesotho

1.7 mil

500

29

Swaziland

0.78 mil

500

64

Angola       

N/A

N/A

13

Malawi       

N/A

N/A

12

Namibia     

1.0 mil

1,400

140

 

SOURCE:          Business Times; of  8/1/88 quoting Prof. Wangwe, Executive Director of the Economic and Social Research Foundation.

 

Table 2 below shows the number of times Tanzania must increase university student output if it is to catch with the selected universities.

 

Table 2: Pace of Increase to catch up with other countries

 

Country

Out put per 100,000 People

Number of Time

South Africa

Kenya

Uganda

Zimbabwe

Zambia

Mozambique

Botswana

Lesotho

Swaziland

Angola

Malawi

Swaziland

Tanzania

244

41

19

29

24

10

40

29

64

13

12

64

7

34.9

5.9

2.7

4.1

3.4

1.4

5.7

4.1

9.4

1.9

1.7

9.4

1.0

 

This means then if Tanzania is to catch up with South Africa, she will have to increase output of University students by 34.9 times. This gives a justification for ATC to register as a University to contribute to this noble cause.

 

 

 

2.5.4     Social and Legal Factors

 

The higher Education Policy of 1998 provides a direction regarding the development of higher education in the country. In this policy document the Government shows its concern for the skewed enrolment in favour of male students: duplication of course programmes, inappropriate and archaic curricula which fail to address the needs of the learner and labour markets, and low quality out-puts characterized by high drop-out and lack of job orientation. The Government¡¯s stallion commitments to address these issues will likely step up enrolment considerably in the years ahead.

 

2.5.5     Technological Factors

 

Globalization is a function of technological development. The long-term success of a nation is dependent on its ability to respond positively to the impact of globalization. This will require a nation to acquaint itself with technological developments hence the need for new universities like University of Arusha to focus on programmes, which are technology driven.

 

1    3.  PROPOSED UNIVERSITY OF ARUSHA PROGRAMME INTERVENTION

 

This section provides a brief overview of the identity of UoA and its development mandate in Arumeru District, Arusha Region within the Republic of Tanzania. It is important to mention that the identity forms the basis for re-focusing TAC¡¯s development activities in the current planning period. Subsequently the section proceeds to discuss the problems in line with the development mandate as a basis for analysis and formulation of the strategies, proposed transformation of TAC and development of its auxiliary enterprises to tackle the problems.